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Epidural Injections:

Placement of a needle or catheter for injection of an anesthetic substance into the epidural space of the spinal cord.

Facet Injection:

Injections of steroids and local anesthetic into the facet joints (the paired joints in the spine) to determine if it is a source of pain or to reduce pain and inflammation.

Intercostal Nerve Block:

A local anesthetic that is injected around anterior (front) divisions of the thoracic spinal nerve, preventing pain messages traveling along that nerve pathway from reaching the brain.

Intrathecal Pump System:

A medical device used to deliver very small quantities of medications directly to the spinal fluid.


A minimally invasive procedure to alleviate pain from spinal compression fractures. An orthopedic balloon is placed in the affected vertebra and is inflated; the resulting cavity is filled with bone cement in order to stabilize the vertebral fracture.

Medial Branch Block:

A diagnostic procedure to confirm the diagnosis of facet joint disease and to find out if the facet joints are contributing to your pain.

Neurolytic Block:

A form of anesthesia in which a neurodestructive agent (e.g., phenol and alcohol) is injected at or near a nerve that has been causing extreme pain.

Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning:

A procedure using a specialized machine to interrupt nerve conduction on a semi-permanent basis. The nerves are usually blocked for 6-9 months (can be as short as 3 months or as long at 18 months).

Selective Nerve Root Block:

A block that is performed to determine if a specific spinal nerve root is the source of pain and reduce inflammation around the nerve root thus decreasing or relieving the pain.

Spinal Cord Stimulator:

An implantable medical device used to treat chronic neurological pain. An electric impulse generated by the device produces a tingling sensation that alters the perception. The device is implanted into the epidural space either by percutaneous approach or by surgical laminectomy or laminotomy. A pulse generator is implanted in the abdomen or buttocks. A wire harness connects the lead to the pulse generator.

Sympathetic Block:

An injection of local anesthetic in the "sympathetic nerve tissue" – the nerves which are a part of Sympathetic Nervous System. The nerves are located on the either side of spine, in the back. This block may reduce pain, swelling, color, and sweating changes in the lower extremity and may improve mobility.

Trigger Point Therapy:

The application of pressure on tender trigger points in the muscles to relieve pain and tension. Injections at the trigger points may also be used.

Sacroiliac Joint Injection:

The injection of long lasting steroid ("cortisone") in the sacroiliac joints – which are located in the low back area.  The steroid injected reduces the inflammation and/or swelling of tissue in the joint space.  This may in turn reduce pain, and other symptoms caused by inflammation / irritation of the joint and surrounding structures.